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CAR INDUSTRY

By Martin and Pierre

NOW IT IS PERSONAL

the economist, august 23 2008

I.                    Présentation

It deals with a famous car brand : Jaguar Land Rover (JLR), an american firm, which is bought by a family Indian group : TATA Group (and his famous TATA Nano)

TATA Group is composed of 93 firms : TATA Motors, TATA Steel, TATA Consulting….

II.                  The buying (the buy-out)

TATA bought JLR the 26 march 2008 and decided to buy it because Land Rover was profitable (but Jaguar wasn’t). Ford sold JLR because of his unhealfy situation.

III.                Issues

JLR production : 31% 4x4 (it’s a lot). With today situation big cars are not the trend, excepte for the China’s and Russian’s market, where TATA sales increased for 100%

IV.                A dark futur

Take measures to protect environnement. Taxes on pollution. JLR makes a lot of big cars -> commercial penalties, financial penalties. JLR’s cars : polluted more than the limit : >130g CO2/Km. They have to improve engines (moteurs).

V.                  Stratégies

The new head office will give JLR more financial independance around 2011. After JLR will become independant from TATA and will improve Land Rover costumer’s service in order to be more competitiv and diversify kinds of cars, to compet with Bentley, to reduced CO2 rejections, invest a lot in R&D. Aluminium chassies liter (plus légers). Today JLR cut jobs in England. Asking for subsidies to be able to survive

Small are the new Big

CAR INDUSTRY

By Julien C. and Remy

SMALL IS THE NEW BIG

Newsweek, 25 february 2008 p 38

I.                    Society changes

The small cars market is expected to rise nearly 50% by 2011. Most famous TATA Nano specialy for the Indian market. In europe : Mini, Fiesta, 207 peugeot. It’s a new era. Small cars : new conception paterns, these cars are cheaper than europeans brands.Because of the drop of the purshasing power in europe, it could be a success

II.                  Advantages

Small cars protect environment, spread less toxic gazes. Measures will reduce this spreads. After oil crises, small cars was advantaging. Bild the electricity cars with a high demand in developing countries. People are more and more aware concerning as environment issues.

III.                Drowbaks

Small cars are less polluted. Indeed, the number of cars on the hearth will bommed/explosed because firms taped emerging market like the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, China). And so it would have more pollution than before ! small cars are less protecting than big car in the accident, it will exist more risks.

The new face of hunger

FOOD INDUSTRY

By Adelie and Barbara

THE NEW FACE OF HUNGER

The economist, april, the 19th 2008, p30

Food shortages[1] in developing countries

I.                    Facts

Period not stable. In countries all along the equateur, people are hungry. Situation become more and more warring, period with cheap food is over, food crises appeared in the world, which is different from the others because it concerned more countries and new people.

II.                  Causes

Purshasing power is getting lower + economic’s crises : people are not able to buy product. Food prices inflation, global warming, environmental issues and a lack of water.

III.                Impacts

Problems for developing countries ; They eat 50% less. Creat famine and desasters situation. This situation raises povrety. Help appears but not currently because of the financial crise : Gouvernments protected their own market with tarifs, price contrôle and subsidies. However, more and more people are ill-feed[2]. Many countries are  reluctant about OGM, which improved yields[3]



[1] Shortage : pénurie

[2] Ill-feed : sous alimenté

[3] Yield : rendement

Storm warming

FOOD INDUSTRY

Armelle and Valentine

STORM WARMING

Newsweek, April 14 2008 p 20

It deals with food shortage in the world

I.                    Facts in India

India needs other country help, because usually harvest[1] is rising with the monsoon and it has unfortunately changes! Actualy, meteological change and entail a drop of 20% in harvest (decrease in harvest by up to 20%). This is a food crisis and there is no reserve left.

II.                  Experts’ analysis about the world situation

Since 2005: important drought[2] in Australia. Climate: impact of the living condition. The demand of bio fuel is increasing because of high price of oil, and so, large quantities of cereal are used in order to make bio fuel. It is a waste.

Climate changes, there is a slump/a drop in the agricultural investment.

IT is a controversial topic[3]

III.                Consequences of the food shortage

People who live in the poor countries are the most affected. They imported 2% less cereals but they will pay 35% more. WFP[4] must receive less founds from countries of OCDE; they will have to cut back aids. The world banks will double loans to help agricultural development in Africa

 



[1] Récoltes

[2] Sécheresse

[3] Sujet à controverse

[4] World Food Program

ECOLOGY

Djé, Kevin and Alex

THE NEXT GREEN REVOLUTION

The economist, 23 February 2008, p 67

INTRO :

Three decades from now, the number of people is going to be 3, 5 more than today. To cater to the large number of people.

GMOs are made with engineer technique; they have been adopted by the USA because of soil erosion, desertification, water shortage, acid rain and global warming, to try to answer these problems.

The European Union does not like it. The only GMOs that EU imported are animal food, because many European thought that GMOs are dangerous.

 

I.                    A brighter future

People thought GMOs was unhealthy.

Scientists say that GMOs are safe (this is a change of mind)

The EU commission wants to adopt GMOs

GMOs help to get higher yields with less water and energy

It helps the industry Monsanto to double their profits

GMOs will provide benefits to consumer (oil (ici huile) made with GMOs test better and produces no trams-fats (mauvaises graisses).

No scared about obesity so may have his place in Europe

follow the leader

NEW TECHNOLOGIES

Jérôme and Rafi

FOLLOW THE LEADER

The economist 14 June 2008 p 66

This article deals with the unusual marketing mix Apple is using

I.                    Apple tries to set new standards

There were two revolutions with Apple: 1984: Macintosh: it was the first computer like we have now (with a graphic card and a mouse)

                                                                              2001: IPOD, new symbol of Apple with a huge success

                                                                              Nowadays: The Iphone

II.                  Competitors (Smartphone companies)

Nokia (Finland): Finnish leader with 45% share of the world smartphone market

RIM (Canada): 13% share

Microsoft (USA): sticks to its positions in order to no follow Apple strategy (this is what the others do)

Others: Motorola (usa), LG (korea), PALM (usa)

III.                Marketing strategy

Apple is the first company with a new way of dealing with carriers (opérateurs): Apple asked carriers to give 30% of monthly fees in order to have an exclusivity contract (like Orange in France)

Iphone is available (disponible) in 70 countries (6 before 2008)

 

The rise of the low-cost laptop

NEW TECHNOLOGIES

Antoine and Agathe

THE RISE OF THE LOW-COST LAPTOP

The economist june 7.2008 p 5

I.                    100$ laptop

2005 at a submit in tunisia a professor Dr negropante unveiled (dévoiler) a small green and convenient computer : the XO laptop which is rain and drop proof (anti-choc). 100$ : a combinaison of clever design and a scale efficiency. Government order millions of them for children in school with aim an educational project designed for children in developing countries. This computer is made by american.

II.                  A new era

First local laptop harbinger (signe avant coureur). Price=> revolutionary. The whole people could be equip with this laptop.

III.                Negative aspects

It causes a stir amoug those interested in ecological development. They think they have other things to do before. Finally they reduce the amount of computers they ordened to 300.000 and they have competitor : classmate laptop => it has outstripped the sales of the XO laptop in developing countries. XO laptop=> Lenux system : drawbacks. Classmate laptop : Windows.

Indians have announced that they will produce a 25$ laptop

NEW TECHNOLOGIES

Nico and Tibchap

INDIA’S BIGGEST MOBIL-PHONE OPERATOR WANTS TO BUY AFRICA’S

The economist from May 10.2008 p68 to 70

I.                    Présentation

MTN’s group limited (African): leading communication service in Africa, offering several networks in developing countries. Created in 1994. It’s a multinational group operating in 21 countries in Africa. The group recorded millions of subscribers across Africa: 81 million

MTN’s strategy:  to tap new markets in emerging countries. To focus in innovation and R&D. Find common infrastructures.

Bharti Airtel (Indian): 62 million subscribers just in India. Bharti Airtel is the flagship (compagnie fare^^) of Bharti group which have diversified activities: Insurance with AXA, a retailing with Wal-Mart, banking with Rotschild and a telecommunication activity: Airtel. Use of a lot of technologies and r&D: Iphone and Blackberry in India

II.                  Current situation

May 2008, Bharti wants to buy MTN for 37 million dollars, willing to acquire a majority of the stakes. MTN shareholders: one shareholder own 23% shares of the company and African government own 13%. The deal is to success. Bharti and MTN will become the 5th largest mobile operator in the world with a significant presence in Africa, India and west Asia. Bharti wants to improve their presence in Africa: some relation with governments which have allowed the merger: political aspect.

III.                Consequences of the merger

A few months ago: Talks not successful. They asked Bharti to become a subsidiary of MTN but not an owner => a change of deal. Bharti has given up (renoncé) as it wanted to have the majority

Tightening belts

FOOD INDUSTRY

Agathe and Camille

TIGHTENING BELTS[1]

The economist, April 12. 2006 p67

I.                    Facts

The text deals with the crises from the retailer side. Inded the crisis touched the retailing sector.

In 2007, prices on edible commodities[2] have been increased and it was the same on fioul and electricity. So processinf of distribution become more expensive. It existed a problem : price rise but not the purshasing power (because of the high unemployment and inflation). Changes in consuming patterns, people take care their money => it hurts smaller companies (they don’t have the benefit of economies of scales) and they have to go bankrupt .

II.                  Examples

Netslé : sales : +7% contrary to the food industry’s sales : +1,8%. Adoption of new measures to cope[3] with the crisis : bought raw materials in advance, buy milk directly from farmer (without intermediaries) and reduce the amount of milk in their recipes (recettes)

Macdonald’s : become more and more popular because of their low prices which are very attractiv in crisis period. One new menu with items at 1$ with an advertising campaign named « dollar menunaires » (dollar millionnaire). Rivals (Starbucks, Burger King) have followed this new strategy.

Wal Mart : people are more and more afrad of consuming, they focus on low prices. Strategy : working with food producers to come up with lower prices.



[1] Se serrer la ceinture

[2] Produits de base commestibles

[3] Faire face à

UNIONS

Pauline and Anaïs

MEMBERSHIP REQUIRED

Teh economist August 2th  2008 p60

I.                    China in front of resisting companies

Pressure by trade-union in China

Very strong country because because of his growth and economie

Compagnies union are forbidden

Resisting to the Union is illegal. It’s illegal to don’t go in this Union because she is controlled by the government. Non-state-owned (= foreign) Compgnies don’t agree.

 

II.                  ACFTU

 

ACFTU: All China federation of Trade unions

Is the sole national trade union federation of the People's Republic of China. It is the largest trade union in the world with 134 million members in 1,713,000 primary trade union organizations.[2] The ACFTU is divided into 31 regional federations and 10 national industrial unions. ACFTU has a monopoly on trade unionizing in China and creation of competing unions is illegal. As a tool of the government, ACFTU has been seen as not acting in the best interest of its members (workers), bowing to the government pressure on industry growth and not defending workers' rights. This, however, may be changing in 2000s.

 

III.                Example of Wal*Mart

 

Wal*Mart, first retailer in the world known as anti-union is black listed: less freedom, taxes, and accusations. Because he refuse/resisting

More and more companies rejoin this Union because of the advantages: influence on chairman loan, more freedom in the market. IMPORTANT : partnerschips with Chines compagnies are compulsory (Obligatory).

Wal*Mart join the ACFTU in order to benefit from the advantages.

DISTRIBUTION

Candice and Florence

GERMAN ARE COMING

The economist, the 16th August 2008, p 53

I.                    Expansion of hard discounters and reasons

 

Hard discounters come from Germany in the early 90’s. This kind of stores is for people who live in suburbs with modest incomes. 40% of the retailing sector in Germany because of the increase of food prices.

 

II.                  Consequences

 

To resist competition, Carrefour, the second biggest retailer in the world recently cut prices. Thanks to high popularity for hard discounters in Great-Britain, Aldi, a German store open one new store a week. New products in hard discounter’s stores: delicatessen product and fresh products.

 

III.                Limits

 

To convey an idée (vehiculer une image). H.D = bad image and poor quality of products.

AGRICULTURE

Marielle and Elsa

THE RIGHT TIME TO SHOP

The economist Mai 3rd 2008

To chop: changer d’avis

CAP : Common agricultural Policy

 

I.                    The CAP and its objectives

 

Created by the Treaty of Rome in 1957

Organized in 1962 (the reform start)

Objectives: increase if his collectivity of productivity insures a fair standard of living for the agricultural population, stabilize the prices of foods, guarantee the security of the suppliers, insure moderate prices for the consumers, and insure the protection of the environment and the rural development.

 

II.                  Problems

 

European farmers have benefited from: Indirect subsidies from the EU and direct subsidies according to the surface of their exploitation

2003: new reforms: they canceled the direct subsidies because farmers are able to live on their own production and not on subsidies

The CAP wants the EU to live on their own culture and not on imports. CAP > Self sufficient and protectionism « community preference »

Bad news for developing countries because they live by their own food exportations. Won’t be able to trade and so they won’t earn money and can’t buy food.

New reform « complete agreement. Objectives: drop EU farm protection to help developing countries. It exist controversial with GB/France and CAP because most of the CAP subsidies benefits to France unlike GB is not an agricultural country but have to pay for the CAP.

 

III.                The improvement

 

To fight against the hunger in poor countries liberalize measures. So EU should become an importater of sugar.

By reducing import tariffs it will help poor countries more than any other helps

CHOCOLATE

Marine and laurianne

A SUGARY MOUTHFUL

The economist, May 3rd  2008

I.                    A friendly Takeover

 

Mars (american’s 3rd largest chocolate privaty firm) and Warren Buffet (biggest chewing-gum compagny from USA) join together to be more powerful an chocolate and gum sector. They takeover Wrigley (amrican’s chocolate firm) which didn’t face with difficulties for 23 million $. It’s not a cross border (international) takeover: it’s on the same country. Advantage for Wrigley : keeps his Head.

 

II.                  The struggle of the main competitor

 

The takeover is a challenge to Cadburry (10% chocolate global market, Irish firm). Cadburry is also trying to diversify thsi activity (chocolate and gum). He start looking into new acquisition like Kraft and Hershey (Both American) in order to improve its marging and satisfy its shareholders. In fact Mars and Wrigley control 14% global market and they will get even more power with retailers. But Hersley has faced some problems (falte sales) and Cadburry can’t buy Hersley without his Trust (= head) agreement and Hersley Head wants to keep contrôle of the firm. So Cadburry and Hersley are likely to face the new « Goliath » alone, the deal is not profitable enough.

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